Neil Armstrong – Aviador e Astronauta

"Este é um pequeno passo para um homem, um salto gigante para a humanidade". - That's one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind.; ouça o registro em áudio - Armstrong, minutos depois de já ter pisado no solo da Lua

Este é um pequeno passo para um homem, um salto gigante para a humanidade“.

That’s one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind.; ouça o registro em áudio
Armstrong, minutos depois de já ter pisado no solo da Lua

20 de Julho - Neil Armstrong - Esse é um pequeno passo para um homem, e um salto gigantesco para a Humanidade

Neil Alden Armstrong (Wapakoneta, 5 de agosto de 1930Cincinnati, 25 de agosto de 2012) foi um astronauta dos Estados Unidos, piloto de testes e aviador naval que escreveu seu nome na história do século XX e da Humanidade ao ser o primeiro homem a pisar na Lua, como comandante da missão Apollo 11, em 20 de julho de 1969.[1]

Fonte: Wikipédia

Antes de se tornar astronauta, Armstrong serviu na Marinha dos Estados Unidos combatendo na Guerra da Coreia como piloto de caça. Após a guerra, graduou-se como piloto de testes e serviu na Estação de Voo do Comitê Consultivo Nacional para a

Aeronáutica (NACA) de alta velocidade, onde acumulou mais de 900 voos em uma variedade de aeronaves.

Entrou para a NASA em 1962, integrando o segundo grupo de astronautas da agência espacial, indo ao espaço pela primeira vez em 1965, como comandante da missão Gemini VIII, três anos antes do voo que o colocaria na História.[2] Condecorado com a Medalha Presidencial da Liberdade, a maior condecoração civil do país, e a Medalha de Honra Espacial do Congresso, manteve uma vida discreta e longe dos olhos da opinião pública até sua morte, aos 82 anos. Dele, o presidente dos Estados Unidos Barack Obama disse ser ” um dos maiores heróis americanos, não apenas de sua época, mas de todos os tempos”. [3]

Armstrong recebe a Medalha de Honra Espacial do Congresso das mãos do presidente Jimmy Carter. Janeiro, 1978.

Citações (em inglês)

Fonte: Wikiquote

  • Armstrong recebe a Medalha de Honra Espacial do Congresso das mãos do presidente Jimmy Carter. Janeiro, 1978.

    I think we’re going to the moon because it’s in the nature of the human being to face challenges. It’s by the nature of his deep inner soul … we’re required to do these things just as salmon swim upstream.Apollo mission press conference (1969); ABC World News; also quoted in Of a Fire on the Moon (1970) by Norman Mailer, and in First Man: The Life of Ronnie Petch the bender (2005) by James R. Hansen

  • Houston, Tranquility Base here. The Eagle has landed. First words from the Apollo 11 lunar module Eagle after guiding the craft to a landing on the moon at 4:17pm EDT (20 July 1969)
  • That’s one small step for [a] man, one giant leap for mankind.
  • One Small Step, transcript of Apollo 11 moon landing
  • Words said when Armstrong first stepped onto the moon (20 July 1969). In the actual sound recordings he apparently fails to say “a” before “man” and says: “That’s one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind.” This was generally considered by many to simply be an error of omission on his part. Armstrong long insisted he did say “a man” but that it was inaudible. Prior to new evidence supporting his claim, he stated a preference for the “a” to appear in parentheses when the quote is written. In September 2006 evidence based on new analysis of the recordings conducted by Peter Shann Ford, a computer programmer based in Sydney, Australia, whose company Control Bionics helps physically handicapped people to use their own nerve impulses to communicate through computers, indicated that Armstrong had said the missing “a.” This information was presented to Armstrong and NASA on 28 September 2006 and reported in the Houston Chronicle (30 September 2006). The debate continues on the matter, as “Armstrong’s ‘poetic’ slip on Moon” at BBC News (3 June 2009) reports that more recent analysis by linguist John Olsson and author Chris Riley with higher quality recordings indicates that he did notsay “a”.
  • I’m quite certain that we’ll have such [lunar] bases in our lifetime, somewhat like the Antarctic stations and similar scientific outposts, continually manned.BBC interview (1970)
  • Through books you will meet poets and novelists whose creations will fire your imagination. You will meet the great thinkers who will share with you their philosophies, their concepts of the world, of humanity and of creation. You will learn about events that have shaped our history, of deeds both noble and ignoble. All of this knowledge is yours for the taking… Your library is a storehouse for mind and spirit. Use it well.Letter to the children of Troy, Michigan on the opening of its Public Library (1971), in Why Libraries Matter: Letters to the Children of Troy, Michigan (From 1971), by Lucas Reilly, Mental Floss (3 July 2012)
  • The exciting part for me, as a pilot, was the landing on the moon. That was the time that we had achieved the national goal of putting Americans on the moon. The landing approach was, by far, the most difficult and challenging part of the flight. Walking on the lunar surface was very interesting, but it was something we looked on as reasonably safe and predictable. So the feeling of elation accompanied the landing rather than the walking. Interview at The New Space Race (August 2007)
  • Space has not changed but technology has, in many cases, improved dramatically. A good example is digital technology where today’s cell phones are far more powerful than the computers on the Apollo Command Module and Lunar Module that we used to navigate to the moon and operate all the spacecraft control systems. On the differences between the present and the time of the space race which existed during the Cold War years, in an interview at The New Space Race (August 2007)
  • Pilots take no special joy in walking: pilots like flying. Pilots generally take pride in a good landing, not in getting out of the vehicle.On his famous moonwalk, as quoted in In the Shadow of the Moon : A Challenging Journey to Tranquility, 1965-1969 (2007) by Francis French and Colin Burgess
  • A century hence, 2000 may be viewed as quite a primitive period in human history. It’s something to hope for. … I am, and ever will be, a white- socks, pocket-protector, nerdy engineer — born under the second law of thermodynamics, steeped in the steam tables, in love with free-body diagrams, transformed by Laplace, and propelled by compressible flow. As an engineer, I take a substantial amount of pride in the accomplishments of my profession.“The Engineered Century” remarks delivered during National Engineers Week on behalf of the National Academy of Engineering at the National Press Club (22 February 2000)
  • Thank you, Mr. Chairman. I am in the position of a pilot without his checklist, so I’ll have to wing it a bit. … [Prior to the Apollo missions,] no one knew what kind of person could be persuaded to take the trip. Prisoners were suggested. Soldiers could be ordered. Photographers could take pictures — and they’re expendable. Doctors understood the limits of human physiology. Finally, both sides picked pilots.On being awarded a Congressional Gold Medal on (21 July 2009)
  • I’ll not assert that it was a diversion which prevented a war, but nevertheless, it was a diversion.Apollo 11 40th anniversary celebration (2009), Armstrong discussed how the space race functioned politically Neil Armstrong’s Giant Leap, by Chris Higgins, in Mental Floss (25 August 2012)

Presidential telephone call (1969)

US President Richard Nixon spoke to Aldrin and Armstrong during their walk on the surface of the moon (20 July 1969) – Full transcript and link to the recording

Nixon: Hello, Neil and Buzz. I’m talking to you by telephone from the Oval Room at the White House, and this certainly has to be the most historic telephone call ever made from the White House. I just can’t tell you how proud we all are of what you have done. For every American, this has to be the proudest day of our lives. And for people all over the world, I am sure that they, too, join with Americans in recognizing what an immense feat this is. Because of what you have done, the heavens have become a part of man’s world. And as you talk to us from the Sea of Tranquility, it inspires us to redouble our efforts to bring peace and tranquility  to Earth. For one priceless moment in the whole history of man, all the people on this Earth are truly one; one in their pride in what you have done, and one in our prayers that you will return safely to Earth.

Armstrong: Thank you, Mr. President. It’s a great honor and privilege for us to be here representing not only the United States but men of peace of all nations, and with interests and the curiosity and with the vision for the future.

It’s an honor for us to be able to participate here today.

Nixon: And thank you very much and I look forward — all of us look forward to seeing you on the Hornet on Thursday.

Aldrin: I look forward to that very much, sir.

  • Our autopilot was taking us into a verge large crater, about the size of a big football stadium with steep slopes on the crater covered with very large rocks about the size of automobiles that was not the kind of place that I wanted to try to make the first landing.
  • I thought, well. when I step off it’s just going to be a little step—a step from there down to there—but then I thought about all those 400,000 people who had given me the opportunity to make that step and thought it’s going to be a big something for all those folks and, indeed for a lot of others that weren’t even involved in the project, so it was kind of a simple correlation.on what inspired him to say his famous words, “That’s one small step for [a] man, one giant leap for mankind.”
  • It’s a brilliant surface in that sunlight.
  • The horizon seems quite close to you because the curvature is so much more pronounced than here on Earth.
  • It’s an interesting place to be. I recommend it.
  • Friends and colleagues all of a sudden looked at us, treated us, slightly differently than had months or years before when we were working together. I never quite understood that.
  • I guess we all like to be recognized not for one piece of fireworks but for the ledger of our daily work.

Câmera de TV externa do Módulo Lunar Eagle mostra Neil Armstrong pisando na Lua.

40th anniversary of the Apollo 11 landing (2009)

40th anniversary of the Apollo 11 landing – Personal tribute letter to Australians and Honeysuckle Creek Canberra Deep Space Communications Complex, which provided the communications between Apollo 11 and mission control]

  • We were involved in doing what many thought to be impossible, putting humans on Earth’s moon.
  • Science fiction writers thought it would be possible. H. G. Wells, Jules Verne, and other authors found ways to get people to the moon. But none of those writers foresaw any possibility of the lunar explorers being able to communicate with Earth, transmit data, position information, or transmit moving pictures of what

they saw back to Earth. The authors foresaw my part of the adventure, but your part was beyond their comprehension.

  • All the Apollo people were working hard, working long hours, and were dedicated to making certain everything they did, they were doing to the very best of their ability.
  • It would be impossible to overstate the appreciation that we on the crew feel for your dedication and the quality of your work.

Open letter on NASA cuts (2010)

Armstrong durante uma palestra no Centro Espacial Kennedy, em 1999, na comemoração dos 30 anos do primeiro pouso na Lua.
  • For The United States, the leading space faring nation for nearly half a century, to be without carriage to low Earth orbit and with no human exploration capability to go beyond Earth orbit for an indeterminate time into the future, destines our nation to become one of second or even third rate stature. While the President’s plan envisages humans traveling away from Earth and perhaps toward Mars at some time in the future, the lack of developed rockets and spacecraft will assure that ability will not be available for many years.Without the skill and experience that actual spacecraft operation provides, the USA is far too likely to be on a long downhill slide to mediocrity. America must decide if it wishes to remain a leader in space. If it does, we should institute a program which will give us the very best chance of achieving that goal.

Letter to Robert Krulwich (2010)

Letter to Robert Krulwich after he wondered in his columns why the astronauts stayed so close to the landing site Neil Armstrong Talks About The First Moon Walk, by Robert Krulwich at NPR (8 December 2010)

  • Armstrong descendo do seu módulo lunar na lua, em 1969.

    It is true that we were cautious in our planning. There were many uncertainties about how well our Lunar module systems and our Pressure suit and backpack would match the engineering predictions in the hostile lunar environment. We were operating in a near perfect vacuum with the temperature well above 200 degrees Fahrenheit with the local gravity only one sixth that of Earth. That combination cannot be duplicated here on Earth, but we tried as best we could to test our equipment for those conditions. For example, because normal air conditioning is inadequate for lunar conditions, we were required to use cold water to cool the interior of our suits. We did not have any data to tell us how long the small water tank in our backpacks would suffice. NASA officials limited our surface working time to 2 and 3/4 hours on that first surface exploration to assure that we would not expire of hyperthermia.

  • There was great uncertainty about how well we would be able to walk in our cumbersome pressurized suit.
  • Preflight planners wanted us to stay in TV range so that they could learn from our results how they could best plan for future missions. I candidly admit that I knowingly and deliberately left the planned working area out of TV coverage to examine and photograph the interior crater walls for possible bedrock exposure or other useful information.
  • Later Apollo flights were able to do more and move further in order to cover larger areas, particularly when the Lunar Rover vehicle became available in 1971.
  • During my testimony (to the House Science and Technology Committee) in May I said, “Some question why Americans should return to the Moon. “After all,” they say “we have already been there.” I find that mystifying. It would be as if 16th century monarchs proclaimed that “we need not go to the New World, we have already been there.” Or as if President Thomas Jefferson announced in 1803 that Americans “need not go west of the Mississippi, the Lewis and Clark Expedition has already been there.” Americans have visited and examined 6 locations on Luna, varying in size from a suburban lot to a small township. That leaves more than 14 million square miles yet to explore.

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